An exploration of effective supervisory engagement in the clothing industry through activity sampling technique


  • Kemlall Ramsaroop Ramdass UNISA
  • Kgabo Mokgohloa UNISA



supervisory engagement, activity sampling, industrial engineering


The gradual financial decrease through national and international competition led approximately 50% of clothing manufacturers to shut down their businesses in the past decade. In a grapple for improved productivity, organisations are evaluating human assets for further value-add. Industry 4.0 embraces total interaction of technology and human resources with a view to a multi-skilled environment. In this endeavor, first-line managers (supervisors) play a critical role in the clothing manufacturing industry in terms of the elimination of non-value-added activities. The meteoric rise of technology-driven processes inculcated in the drive of Industry 4.0. The clothing industry lacks the drive for continuous improvement due to an impasse in skills-driven improvement and the application of industrial engineering principles. Organisations are seeking improvement opportunities in multi-skilling the workforce. In this endeavor, supervisory activities were evaluated to determine value-add in the production process. This study aims to evaluate supervisory engagement to ascertain non-value-added activities and forms a foundation to leverage human capital into competitive advantage. The research adopted the application of activity sampling analysis through a case study at a clothing manufacturer. Direct observation and informal discussions on the factory floor were used as the primary means for data collection. 


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Author Biographies

Kemlall Ramsaroop Ramdass, UNISA

Associate Professor

Kgabo Mokgohloa, UNISA

Senior Lecturer




How to Cite

Ramdass, K. R., & Mokgohloa, K. (2022). An exploration of effective supervisory engagement in the clothing industry through activity sampling technique. The South African Journal of Industrial Engineering, 33(4), 165–176.



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